Evaluation des impacts de la fragmentation du paysage par une autoroute sur les chauves-souris à différentes échelles spatio-temporelles

Abstract : Biodiversity is being lost at an increased rate as a result of human activities. One of the major threats to biodiversity is infrastructural development. Although the measures taken in environmental impact assessments can limit this loss, the mitigation hierarchy to "Avoid, Reduce and Offset" impacts on biodiversity is not fully functional. Indeed, the mitigation hierarchy often uses qualitative data and does not account for the biological and/or ecological processes and their different spatial and temporal scales. The impact of roads is well documented for several biological groups but not for bats whereas they are likely to be very strongly affected. Moreover, as they are strictly protected, they should be considered in the mitigation hierarchy. Therefore, through the study of bats, I investigated the effects of roads, especially major roads, and intended to measure and quantify the magnitude of their impacts. This thesis presents different methods developed to reach this objective and which may be used by stakeholders in the field. First, I intended to determine how to process data collected through passive acoustic monitoring and how to exploit these data. Then I determined what the impacts of roads on bat populations are and I proposed a method in order to assess the mitigation measures which presume to restore bat habitat connectivity. Our main results show a significant negative effect of roads on bats foraging and commuting behaviour for several species and up to at least five kilometres away from a major road. In addition, the effect of major roads also seems to have consequences on populations’ genetics. Finally, we studied bat overpasses which are structures specifically dedicated to bats and aiming at reducing the impacts of roads by improving bats’ habitat connectivity. These structures seem to be appropriate when located in narrow ecological corridors such as hedgerows.
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Fabien Claireau. Evaluation des impacts de la fragmentation du paysage par une autoroute sur les chauves-souris à différentes échelles spatio-temporelles. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS; Greifswald university, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0018⟩. ⟨tel-02122642⟩

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