Concilier le développement urbain et agricole avec la conservation de la biodiversité : anticipation de l'empreinte des activités anthropiques sur la biodiversité par une approche fonctionnelle et multi-trophique

Abstract : The strong growth of Human populations has led to the intensification of land uses and land covers, especially in agricultural lands for food production and livestock, resulting in a higher appropriation of net primary productivity. As primary productivity is the root of food webs and ecological networks, any change in this essential process is likely to have a strong impact on biodiversity. Besides, intensification is a complex process whose three dimensions - inputs, outputs and system - are rarely studied together. The conceptual and methodological framework of HANPP (Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production) proposed by Helmut Haberl and collaborators in 2007, aims to quantify different parameters of intensification. First, I explored the variability of HANPP components and their relationships to other intensification indices (i.e. HNV, IC / ha) to better interpret the variability of HANPP and its components. HANPP seems to be linked to both the "system" and "output" dimensions of land use intensity and appears to complement the other indicators considered. Then, I investigated the relationship between HANPP and biodiversity, focusing on two taxa complementary in their ecosystem functions, i.e. birds and bats. Using data from citizen-science programs occurring in metropolitan France, I showed that intensification: i) decreased species richness, abundance and the average mass of bats, and ii) simplified the structure of avian communities by lowering the average trophic level and functional regularity, to the benefit of farmland specialists. In addition, I observed that the response of biodiversity could widely vary depending on the indicator and / or facet (taxonomic or functional) studied. Through my analyzes, I was able to clarify the conditions of use of the HANPP methodological framework. I also identified areas and types of landscape where land use intensity can coexist with biodiversity. All of these results form the basis for a discussion on opportunities to reconcile conservation efforts with intensification.
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Claire Lorel. Concilier le développement urbain et agricole avec la conservation de la biodiversité : anticipation de l'empreinte des activités anthropiques sur la biodiversité par une approche fonctionnelle et multi-trophique. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0009⟩. ⟨tel-02126845⟩

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