Quand les promoteurs immobiliers produisent la ville de demain : étude de deux projets urbains de standing en France et au Mexique

Abstract : Real-estate companies became important stake holders within the city planning process. They moved to new stakes and spaces of urban planning. We suggest that one of the reasons of these new challenges is that some big real-estate companies are focused the themes of innovation and experimentation and are more and more characterized by their involvement within the public – private organizations. This search for innovative proposals has led several organisational transformations within the mix of urban project stakeholder groups. The hegemonic tendency of the real-estate companies can be organized around several phases of urban projects: conception, construction, monitoring, management, etc. Its means that some real-estate companies are not only in charge of the construction phase of urban projects – like they use to be – because they also conquered new phases that participate to the elaboration and to the operational process of urban projects. This recent evolution is linked with strategic views, coming from these companies, on the way they think about urban planning and on the notion of quality of life. It represents, for this type of companies, a change of paradigm in the way of conceiving the production of urban space, but it also represents an evolution of the internal organization of public – private partnership. As several members of a French real-estate companies put it during our interviews, this change involves a new title: they evolve from real estate developers to “urban operators”. We saw, in our fieldwork, that it has led to various developments, such as: a change of temporal perspective, from short term commitment they move towards mid or long-term outlooks. Being “urban operators” also means that they have to be very cognisant about new lifestyles, new kinds of behaviours and needs, because it affects their marketing power. Thirdly, companies are sensitive and even greedy about information that concerns how people react to their proposals. This has led to several organizational transformations with, for instance, the emergence of new kinds of “research and development” areas, specific investments funds, contracts with social science researchers, etc. We studied two contexts in particular: flagship urban projects within the urban renovation process in France and in Mexico. With two cases: Plaza Carso in Mexico and the eco neighbourhood du Fort in Issy-les-Moulineaux near Paris. The ranking of flagships projects is a strong trigger for innovation. Plaza Carso and the Fort are characterized by a very strong involvement of real-estate companies that rebuilt the relationship with the local authorities. In both situations, real-estate companies had benefitted from legal specificities, and even legal liberalization in the Mexican case, to develop the project
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Lorraine Peynichou. Quand les promoteurs immobiliers produisent la ville de demain : étude de deux projets urbains de standing en France et au Mexique. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1085⟩. ⟨tel-01970955⟩

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