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De la multifonctionnalité des Coopératives d’Activités et d’Emploi : des modèles socioproductifs expérimentaux dans les zones grises de l’emploi et du travail. Une recherche-action à propos d’Oxalis, Coopaname et Artenréel

Abstract : Changes in the organisation and mobilisation of work in France lead to the emergence of grey zones of work and employment. In this context of self-employment growth, nearly 150 Business and Em-ployment Cooperatives (BEC) establish mutualisation and cooperation forms between entrepreneur-salaried employees. Their democratic production system and the employment terms aim at improving the conditions of autonomy in and through work. In 2014, the law on Social and Solidarity Econ-omy recognised BECs; however, the decrease in public funding is nevertheless impacting their already limited resources. This thesis sheds light on the understanding of these experimental production systems aiming to mitigate structural changes in production and wage relations. It focuses on the instituted and instituting spaces, which go beyond the opposing theoretical patterns of market/non-market production, wage labour/self-employment. Working from an institutionalist perspective, this thesis focuses on the strategic and organisational orientations of BECs which favour the combination of a socio-political and economic dimensions. The integral participatory action-research approach is enhanced by the logic of pragmatic inquiry. The case study is based on Oxalis, Coopaname and Artenréel. The monographic work considers the nature and scope of productive activities, the socio-productive system, the strategic orientations, the means of production and the modes of governance. The dialogue between the conceptual architec-ture of the regulation theory and the pragmatism of the social economy makes it possible to revisit the productive models, which allows to qualify the cooperative compromises of government of the BECs around multifunctional productive dynamics. This results in a reading grid and socioeconomic indicators to study BECs. Between 2013 and 2018, the analysis of the multifunctional productive logics in three BECs shows the ambivalence and the structuring instability of the cooperative government compromises. In Oxalis, the preponderance of economic development is framed by autonomy and professional solidarity through production cooperation. In Coopaname, the compromise marks the pre-eminence of politics, social ties and solidarity before economic development. In Artenréel, the historical compromise continues with the primacy of social accompaniment and the diffusion of cooperation in the artistic milieu, in a pattern of general interest and social utility, with a strong instituted dimension. On the basis of three BECs studied, we highlight several factors of unity and diversity of the BECs’ socio-productive models. The sustainability of their socio-productive dynamics is guaranteed by their Cooperative Project, which favours integration through entrepreneurial economic activity, autonomy in work and production cooperation. The difficulty for them is to have sufficient market resources in order to perpetuate their mutualized services and provide acceptable income for their members. Paradoxically, it is the structural instability of their compromise that guarantees the solidity of multi-functional socio-productive models. There are recurrent organizational dysfunctions and relational tensions. Their strategies of competitiveness are specific as BECs choose to emphasize either a political, a social or an economic dimension, or they can be combined in different ways. Their organizational forms also differ according to the means of mutualization and cooperation, and the modalities of governance. This thesis provides scientific results that enrich the regulation theory and social economy, and also operational results for the BECs. The cooperative activity report takes into account the inherent tensions in the social relations of production. The multifunctionality of self-employment makes the contradictory temporalities and the purposes of the activities explicit.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 10, 2020 - 3:07:01 PM
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Justine Ballon. De la multifonctionnalité des Coopératives d’Activités et d’Emploi : des modèles socioproductifs expérimentaux dans les zones grises de l’emploi et du travail. Une recherche-action à propos d’Oxalis, Coopaname et Artenréel. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. Université de Paris / Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7), 2020. Français. ⟨tel-02998438⟩

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